5/11/2007

Sí, som anti-estalinistes

Basant-me en el capítol del llibre “La Alemania de Hitler y la Unión Soviètica de Stalin” de Richard Overy, veure'm les similituds i diferències entre ambdós règims, entenent així que, malgrat que tenien diferències, les similituds es mengen tota possible argumentació de que Stalin no es era com Hitler.




Similituds:
1.- Tal com diu l’intèrpret soviètic V. Berezhkov des de Berlin, es torbà amb el mateix enaltiment dels líders, les mateixes concentracions i desfilades de masses, l’arquitectura ostentosa, els temes heroics representats en l’art, en definitiva, i en el seu parer, una mateixa rentada de cervell ideològica. (Overy. Pàg 719)
2.- Una de les premisses que unia als dos sistemes era la distància permanent que hi havia entre l’ideal i la realitat, i els instruments comuns que usaren per a dissimular las tergiversacions de la veritat. (Overy. Pàg 720)
3.- Tan l’Stalinisme com el Nazisme gaudien d’ampli recolzament popular i els seus líders predicaven la idea d’una comunitat holítica i exclusiva. Faig palesa aquí d’un comentari observat al vídeo de l’ascens de Hitler al poder, on un militant alemany socialdemòcrata d’aquell temps, admet clarament que ell es sentia culpable, marginat i envejós per no poder embriagar-se d’aquella follia col·lectiva i de germanor que es creava al voltant de Hitler. (Overy. Pàg 720 i vídeo dos del cinefòrum)
4.- Cap d’ambdós sistemes fou imposat per forces exteriors. L’un fou a través d’una revolució soviètica russa i l’altre fou a través d’unes eleccions teòricament netes. (Overy. Pàg 720)
5.- Els dos règims van ser el primer intent de controlar tota la producció cultural, dirigir l’economia, regimentar la societat, definir els paràmetres de la vida privada i els termes del comportament pública. (Overy. Pàg 720)
6.- Ambdós sistemes tenien una creença total que la ciència podia comprendre i desprès transformar la condició humana. *1 (Overy. Pàg 721)
7.- Tant un sistema com l’altre, representava el rebuig profund del concepte liberal i occidental de progrés i lògicament amb el seu èmfasi en la sobirania de l’individu, les virtuts de la societat civil i la tolerància de la diversitat. *2 (Overy. Pàg 722)
8.- Ambdós règims exaltaven el fet que la seva dictadura representava un punt d’inflexió fonamental en la història del món modern. *3 (Overy. Pàg 722)
9.- Estaven imbuïdes de profunds temors, cada una d’elles presentava l’enemic com si gaudís de poders extraordinaris secrets, subversius i socialment corrosius. Aquests enemics feien que els dos sistemes promoguessin un exagerat estat de defensa, cosa que explica també l’aparell de seguretat de l’Estat actuava amb tant de rigor i severitat*4 (Overy. Pàg 724)
10.- Ambdós sistemes animaven l’aparició d’odis i ressentiments. I tal com s’explicava al vídeo, una espècie de psicosi general que feia que tothom fos sospitós de ser contrari al règim, fet que produïa acusacions (de fills a pares) molts cops falses i detencions en massa. (Overy. Pàg 725 i vídeo 1 del cinefòrum)
11.- Només poden haver dues postures, no hi ha lloc pels indecisos (o sí o no) i els que agafen la postura contraria al règim seran reprimits durament. (Overy. Pàg 726)
12.- La violència fou omnipresent a les dues dictadures, és més, era essencial i defensada pels dos dictadors, ja que havien conviscut en situacions molt macabres i sangoses . Això va provocar l’assassinat i el “suïcidi”, les deportacions i internaments a camps de concentració. Tanmateix, cap dels dos dictadors es considerava a si mateix com a assassí. *5 (Overy. Pàg 727)
13.- L’existència de la seva dictadura era justificada per la persecució d’una meta llunyana, fet pel qual valia la pena lluitar.*6 (Overy. Pàg 729)
14.- Stalinisme i Nazisme van aconseguir convertir les veritats en mentides i les falsedats en veritats, tot construint una imatge feliç de la societat.
Ajudats per un aïllament internacional, un control de la informació, una autarquia cultural i unes promeses àmpliament acceptades. (Overy. Pàg 729)

Diferencies:
a) Stalin volia que el poble soviètic construís un futur socialista “on totes les persones serien iguals i felices”.
b) Hitler volia crear l’imperi de la raça superior i volia que el seu poble la construís a partir de la mortaldat de la guerra.
a) Stalin lluitava pel triomf mundial dels desvalguts i explotats
b) Hitler lluitava per un imperi racial ideal.
*1 a) El Marxisme de Marx i Engels es recolzava en la ciència econòmica i social: En la creença que les lleis del desenvolupament econòmic produïen forçosament les condicions per a un sistema social únic basat en l’abolició de les classes i l’apropiació de la propietat per al seu ús social.
b) Hitler es basava en una ciència biològica basada en preservar la raça o nació com a espècie pura i exclusiva. (Overy. Pàg 721)
*2 a) Stalin rebutjaven la era liberal burgesa perquè representava de forma manifesta els interessos exclusius de les classes posseïdores.
b) Hitler ho rebutjava perquè produïa antagonisme social, fomentava l’empobriment de la raça en les extenses ciutats industrials i conduïa a un culte exagerat de l’egoisme econòmic. (Overy. Pàg 722)
*3 a) Stalin volia completar la destrucció de l’etapa burgesa de la història, iniciada amb els Jacobins.
b) Hitler i els seus, volien parar la marea de canvi històric que havia produït el Marxisme i la Revolució i rescatar Europa de la major crisis des de que s’havia enfrontat a la Revolució Francesa. (Overy. Pàg 723)
*4 a) L’estalinisme considerava que l’enemic estava emmascarat i amagat dins del Partit i es tenia por a una contrarevolució.
b) Hitler presentava el jueu com a enemic, com una força quasi imparable, gràcies a la primera Guerra Mundial i les crisis dels anys 20 validaven la teoria Hitleriana era certa. (Overy. Pàg 725)
*5 a) Cal esmentar que al cas soviètic la violència política fou anterior a la II Guerra Mundial (Overy. Pàg 727)
*6 a) Pel que fa a la Unió Soviètica, Stalin ho justificava dient que era un control transicional cap a una societat lliure.
b) Hitler seguia lluitant per a poder assegurar un Estat racial estable.(Overy. Pàg 729)

Per concloure, podria simplificar que el fet que arribés al poder tant Hitler com Stalin, fou perquè el poble, descontent i amargat (uns per culpa de la situació quasi feudal en que es vivia i els altres per l’humiliació d’un tractat de Versalles injust per ells, i les dues crisis dels anys 20), van trobar en Hitler i en l’Estalinsime allò que volien sentir, un suposat progrés i igualtat de classes per a uns i la renaixença de l’Imperi alemany pels altres.



Pau entre pobles, guerra entre classes. SALUT! -Redwarrior-

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